This information is intended for use by health professionals

1. Name of the medicinal product

Thiotepa 100 mg powder for concentrate for solution for infusion

2. Qualitative and quantitative composition

One vial of powder contains 100 mg thiotepa.

After reconstitution with 10 ml of water for injections, each ml of solution contains 10 mg thiotepa (10 mg/ml).

For the full list of excipients, see section 6.1.

3. Pharmaceutical form

Powder for concentrate for solution for infusion.

White lyophilized powder.

4. Clinical particulars
4.1 Therapeutic indications

Thiotepa is indicated, in combination with other chemotherapy medicinal products:

• with or without total body irradiation (TBI), as conditioning treatment prior to allogeneic or autologous haematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation (HPCT) in haematological diseases in adult and paediatric patients;

• when high dose chemotherapy with HPCT support is appropriate for the treatment of solid tumours in adult and paediatric patients.

4.2 Posology and method of administration

Thiotepa administration must be supervised by a physician experienced in conditioning treatment prior to haematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation.

Posology

Thiotepa is administered at different doses, in combination with other chemotherapeutic medicinal products, in patients with haematological diseases or solid tumours prior to HPCT.

Thiotepa posology is reported, in adult and paediatric patients, according to the type of HPCT (autologous or allogeneic) and disease.

Adults

AUTOLOGOUS HPCT

Haematological diseases

The recommended dose in haematological diseases ranges from 125 mg/m2/day (3.38 mg/kg/day) to 300 mg/m2/day (8.10 mg/kg/day) as a single daily infusion, administered from 2 up to 4 consecutive days before autologous HPCT depending on the combination with other chemotherapeutic medicinal products, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 900 mg/m2 (24.32 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

LYMPHOMA

The recommended dose ranges from 125 mg/m2/day (3.38 mg/kg/day) to 300 mg/m2/day (8.10 mg/kg/day) as a single daily infusion, administered from 2 up to 4 consecutive days before autologous HPCT depending on the combination with other chemotherapeutic medicinal products, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 900 mg/m2 (24.32 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM(CNS) LYMPHOMA

The recommended dose is 185 mg/m2/day (5 mg/kg/day) as a single daily infusion, administered for 2 consecutive days before autologous HPCT, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 370 mg/m2 (10 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

MULTIPLE MYELOMA

The recommended dose ranges from 150 mg/m2/day (4.05 mg/kg/day) to 250 mg/m2/day (6.76 mg/kg/day) as a single daily infusion, administered for 3 consecutive days before autologous HPCT depending on the combination with other chemotherapeutic medicinal products, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 750 mg/m2 (20.27 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

Solid tumours

The recommended dose in solid tumours ranges from 120 mg/m2/day (3.24 mg/kg/day) to 250 mg/m2/day (6.76 mg/kg/day) divided in one or two daily infusions, administered from 2 up to 5 consecutive days before autologous HPCT depending on the combination with other chemotherapeutic medicinal products, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 800 mg/m2 (21.62 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

BREAST CANCER

The recommended dose ranges from 120 mg/m2/day (3.24 mg/kg/day) to 250 mg/m2/day (6.76 mg/kg/day) as a single daily infusion, administered from 3 up to 5 consecutive days before autologous HPCT depending on the combination with other chemotherapeutic medicinal products, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 800 mg/m2 (21.62 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

CNS TUMOURS

The recommended dose ranges from 125 mg/m2/day (3.38 mg/kg/day) to 250 mg/m2/day (6.76 mg/kg/day) divided in one or two daily infusions, administered from 3 up to 4 consecutive days before autologous HPCT depending on the combination with other chemotherapeutic medicinal products, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 750 mg/m2 (20.27 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

OVARIAN CANCER

The recommended dose is 250 mg/m2/day (6.76 mg/kg/day) as a single daily infusion, administered in 2 consecutive days before autologous HPCT, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 500 mg/m2 (13.51 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

GERM CELL TUMOURS

The recommended dose ranges from 150 mg/m2/day (4.05 mg/kg/day) to 250 mg/m2/day (6.76 mg/kg/day) as a single daily infusion, administered for 3 consecutive days before autologous HPCT depending on the combination with other chemotherapeutic medicinal products, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 750 mg/m2 (20.27 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

ALLOGENEIC HPCT

Haematological diseases

The recommended dose in haematological diseases ranges from 185 mg/m2/day (5 mg/kg/day) to 481 mg/m2/day (13 mg/kg/day) divided in one or two daily infusions, administered from 1 up to 3 consecutive days before allogeneic HPCT depending on the combination with other chemotherapeutic medicinal products, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 555 mg/m2 (15 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

LYMPHOMA

The recommended dose in lymphoma is 370 mg/m2/day (10 mg/kg/day) divided in two daily infusions before allogeneic HPCT, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 370 mg/m2 (10 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

MULTIPLE MYELOMA

The recommended dose is 185 mg/m2/day (5 mg/kg/day) as a single daily infusion before allogeneic HPCT, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 185 mg/m2 (5 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

LEUKAEMIA

The recommended dose ranges from 185 mg/m2/day (5 mg/kg/day) to 481 mg/m2/day (13 mg/kg/day) divided in one or two daily infusions, administered from 1 up to 2 consecutive days before allogeneic HPCT depending on the combination with other chemotherapeutic medicinal products, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 555 mg/m2 (15 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

THALASSEMIA

The recommended dose is 370 mg/m2/day (10 mg/kg/day) divided in two daily infusions, administered before allogeneic HPCT, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 370 mg/m2 (10 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

Paediatric population

AUTOLOGOUS HPCT

Solid tumours

The recommended dose in solid tumours ranges from 150 mg/m2/day (6 mg/kg/day) to 350 mg/m2/day (14 mg/kg/day) as a single daily infusion, administered from 2 up to 3 consecutive days before autologous HPCT depending on the combination with other chemotherapeutic medicinal products, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 1050 mg/m2 (42 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

CNS TUMOURS

The recommended dose ranges from 250 mg/m2/day (10 mg/kg/day) to 350 mg/m2/day (14 mg/kg/day) as a single daily infusion, administered for 3 consecutive days before autologous HPCT depending on the combination with other chemotherapeutic medicinal products, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 1050 mg/m2 (42 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

ALLOGENEIC HPCT

Haematological diseases

The recommended dose in haematological diseases ranges from 125 mg/m2/day (5 mg/kg/day) to 250 mg/m2/day (10 mg/kg/day) divided in one or two daily infusions, administered from 1 up to 3 consecutive days before allogeneic HPCT depending on the combination with other chemotherapeutic medicinal products, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 375 mg/m2 (15 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

LEUKAEMIA

The recommended dose is 250 mg/m2/day (10 mg/kg/day) divided in two daily infusions, administered before allogeneic HPCT, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 250 mg/m2 (10 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

THALASSEMIA

The recommended dose ranges from 200 mg/m2/day (8 mg/kg/day) to 250 mg/m2/day (10 mg/kg/day) divided in two daily infusions, administered before allogeneic HPCT without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 250 mg/m2 (10 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

REFRACTORY CYTOPENIA

The recommended dose is 125 mg/m2/day (5 mg/kg/day) as a single daily infusion, administered for 3 consecutive days before allogeneic HPCT, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 375 mg/m2 (15 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

GENETIC DISEASES

The recommended dose is 125 mg/m2/day (5 mg/kg/day) as a single daily infusion, administered for 2 consecutive days before allogeneic HPCT, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 250 mg/m2 (10 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

SICKLE CELL ANAEMIA

The recommended dose is 250 mg/m2/day (10 mg/kg/day) divided in two daily infusions, administered before allogeneic HPCT, without exceeding the total maximum cumulative dose of 250 mg/m2 (10 mg/kg), during the time of the entire conditioning treatment.

Special populations

Renal impairment

Studies in renally impaired patients have not been conducted. As thiotepa and its metabolites are poorly excreted in the urine, dose modification is not recommended in patients with mild or moderate renal insufficiency. However, caution is recommended (see sections 4.4 and 5.2).

Hepatic impairment

Thiotepa has not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment. Since thiotepa is mainly metabolized through the liver, caution needs to be exercised when thiotepa is used in patients with pre-existing impairment of liver function, especially in those with severe hepatic impairment. Dose modification is not recommended for transient alterations of hepatic parameters (see section 4.4).

Elderly

The administration of thiotepa has not been specifically investigated in elderly patients. However, in clinical studies, a proportion of patients over the age of 65 received the same cumulative dose as the other patients. No dose adjustment was deemed necessary.

Method of administration

Thiotepa must be administered by a qualified healthcare professional as a 2-4 hours intravenous infusion via a central venous catheter.

Each Thiotepa vial must be reconstituted with 10 ml of sterile water for injection. The total volume of reconstituted vials to be administered should be further diluted in 500 ml of sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) solution for injection prior to administration (1,000 ml if the dose is higher than 500 mg). In children, if the dose is lower than 250 mg, an appropriate volume of sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) solution for injection may be used in order to obtain a final Thiotepa concentration between 0.5 and 1 mg/ml. For instructions on reconstitution and further dilution prior to administration, see section 6.6.

Precautions to be taken before handling or administering the medicinal product

Topical reactions associated with accidental exposure to thiotepa may occur. Therefore, the use of gloves is recommended in preparing the solution for infusion. If thiotepa solution accidentally contacts the skin, the skin must be immediately thoroughly washed with soap and water. If thiotepa accidentally contacts mucous membranes, they must be flushed thoroughly with water (see section 6.6).

4.3 Contraindications

Hypersensitivity to the active substance or to any of the excipients listed in section 6.1.

Pregnancy and lactation (see section 4.6).

Concomitant use with yellow fever vaccine and with live virus and bacterial vaccines (see section 4.5).

4.4 Special warnings and precautions for use

The consequence of treatment with thiotepa at the recommended dose and schedule is profound myelosuppression, occurring in all patients. Severe granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, anaemia or any combination thereof may develop. Frequent complete blood counts, including differential white blood cell counts, and platelet counts need to be performed during the treatment and until recovery is achieved. Platelet and red blood cell support, as well as the use of growth factors such as Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF), should be employed as medically indicated. Daily white blood cell counts and platelet counts are recommended during therapy with thiotepa and after transplant for at least 30 days.

Prophylactic or empiric use of anti-infectives (bacterial, fungal, viral) should be considered for the prevention and management of infections during the neutropenic period.

Thiotepa has not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment. Since thiotepa is mainly metabolized through the liver, caution needs to be observed when thiotepa is used in patients with pre-existing impairment of liver function, especially in those with severe hepatic impairment. When treating such patients it is recommended that serum transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin are monitored regularly following transplant, for early detection of hepatotoxicity.

Patients who have received prior radiation therapy, greater than or equal to three cycles of chemotherapy, or prior progenitor cell transplant may be at an increased risk of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (see section 4.8).

Caution must be used in patients with history of cardiac diseases, and cardiac function must be monitored regularly in patients receiving thiotepa.

Caution must be used in patients with history of renal diseases and periodic monitoring of renal function should be considered during therapy with thiotepa.

Thiotepa might induce pulmonary toxicity that may be additive to the effects produced by other cytotoxic agents (busulfan, fludarabine and cyclophosphamide) (see section 4.8).

Previous brain irradiation or craniospinal irradiation may contribute to severe toxic reactions (e.g. encephalopathy).

The increased risk of a secondary malignancy with thiotepa, a known carcinogen in humans, must be explained to the patient.

Concomitant use with live attenuated vaccines (except yellow fever vaccines), phenytoin and fosphenytoin is not recommended (see section 4.5).

Thiotepa must not be concurrently administered with cyclophosphamide when both medicinal products are present in the same conditioning treatment. Thiotepa must be delivered after the completion of any cyclophosphamide infusion (see section 4.5).

During the concomitant use of thiotepa and inhibitors of CYP2B6 or CYP3A4, patients should be carefully monitored clinically (see section 4.5).

As most alkylating agents, thiotepa might impair male or female fertility. Male patients should seek for sperm cryopreservation before therapy is started and should not father a child while treated and during the year after cessation of treatment (see section 4.6).

4.5 Interaction with other medicinal products and other forms of interaction

Specific interactions with thiotepa

Live virus and bacterial vaccines must not be administered to a patient receiving an immunosuppressive chemotherapeutic agent and at least three months must elapse between discontinuation of therapy and vaccination.

Thiotepa appears to be metabolised via CYP2B6 and CYP3A4. Co-administration with inhibitors of CYP2B6 (for example clopidogrel and ticlopidine) or CYP3A4 (for example azole antifungals, macrolides like erythromycin, clarithromycin, telithromycin, and protease inhibitors) may increase the plasma concentrations of thiotepa and potentially decrease the concentrations of the active metabolite TEPA. Co-administration of inducers of cytochrome P450 (such as rifampicin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital) may increase the metabolism of thiotepa leading to increased plasma concentrations of the active metabolite. Therefore, during the concomitant use of thiotepa and these medicinal products, patients should be carefully monitored clinically.

Thiotepa is a weak inhibitor for CYP2B6, and may thereby potentially increase plasma concentrations of substances metabolised via CYP2B6, such as ifosfamide, tamoxifen, bupropion, efavirenz and cyclophosphamide. CYP2B6 catalyzes the metabolic conversion of cyclophosphamide to its active form 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (4-OHCP) and co-administration of thiotepa may therefore lead to decreased concentrations of the active 4-OHCP. Therefore, a clinical monitoring should be exercised during the concomitant use of thiotepa and these medicinal products.

Contraindications of concomitant use

Yellow fever vaccine: risk of fatal generalized vaccine-induced disease.

More generally, live virus and bacterial vaccines must not be administered to a patient receiving an immunosuppressive chemotherapeutic agent and at least three months must elapse between discontinuation of therapy and vaccination.

Concomitant use not recommended

Live attenuated vaccines (except yellow fever): risk of systemic, possibly fatal disease. This risk is increased in subjects who are already immunosuppressed by their underlying disease.

An inactivated virus vaccine should be used instead, whenever possible (poliomyelitis).

Phenytoin: risk of exacerbation of convulsions resulting from the decrease of phenytoin digestive absorption by cytotoxic medicinal product or risk of toxicity enhancement and loss of efficacy of the cytotoxic medicinal product due to increased hepatic metabolism by phenytoin.

Concomitant use to take into consideration

Ciclosporine, tacrolimus: excessive immunosuppression with risk of lymphoproliferation.

Alkylating chemotherapeutic agents, including thiotepa, inhibit plasma pseudocholinesterase by 35% to 70%. The action of succinyl-choline can be prolonged by 5 to 15 minutes.

Thiotepa must not be concurrently administered with cyclophosphamide when both medicinal products are present in the same conditioning treatment. Thiotepa must be delivered after the completion of any cyclophosphamide infusion.

The concomitant use of thiotepa and other myelosuppressive or myelotoxic agents (i.e. cyclophosphamide, melphalan, busulfan, fludarabine, treosulfan) may potentiate the risk of haematologic adverse reactions due to overlapping toxicity profiles of these medicinal products.

Interaction common to all cytotoxics

Due to the increase of thrombotic risk in case of malignancy, the use of anticoagulative treatment is frequent. The high intra-individual variability of the coagulation state during malignancy, and the potential interaction between oral anticoagulants and anticancer chemotherapy require, if it is decided to treat the patient with oral anticoagulants, to increase the frequency of the INR (International Normalised Ratio) monitoring.

4.6 Fertility, pregnancy and lactation

Women of childbearing potential

Women of childbearing potential have to use effective contraception during treatment and a pregnancy test should be performed before treatment is started.

Pregnancy

There are no data on the use of thiotepa during pregnancy. In pre-clinical studies thiotepa, as most alkylating agents, has been shown to cause embryofoetal lethality and teratogenicity (see section 5.3). Therefore, thiotepa is contraindicated during pregnancy.

Breast-feeding

It is unknown whether thiotepa is excreted in human milk. Due to its pharmacological properties and its potential toxicity for breast-fed newborns/infants, breast-feeding is contraindicated during treatment with thiotepa.

Fertility

As most alkylating agents, thiotepa might impair male and female fertility.

Male patients should seek for sperm cryopreservation before therapy is started and should not father a child while treated and during the year after cessation of treatment (see section 5.3).

4.7 Effects on ability to drive and use machines

Thiotepa may have major influence on the ability to drive and use machines. It is likely that certain adverse reactions of thiotepa like dizziness, headache and blurred vision could affect these functions.

4.8 Undesirable effects

Summary of the safety profile

The safety of thiotepa has been examined through a review of adverse events reported in published data from clinical trials. In these studies, a total of 6,588 adult patients and 902 paediatric patients received thiotepa for conditioning treatment prior to haematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation.

Serious toxicities involving the haematologic, hepatic and respiratory systems were considered as expected consequences of the conditioning regimen and transplant process. These include infection and Graft-versus host disease (GvHD) which, although not directly related, were the major causes of morbidity and mortality, especially in allogeneic HPCT.

The most frequently adverse reactions reported in the different conditioning treatments including thiotepa are: infections, cytopenia, acute GvHD and chronic GvHD, gastrointestinal disorders, haemorrhagic cystitis, mucosal inflammation.

Leukoencephalopathy

Cases of leukoencephalopathy have been observed following treatment with thiotepa in adult and paediatric patients with multiple previous chemotherapies, including methotrexate and radiotherapy. Some cases had a fatal outcome.

Tabulated list of adverse reactions

Adults

The adverse reactions considered at least possibly related to conditioning treatment including thiotepa, reported in adult patients as more than an isolated case, are listed below by system organ class and by frequency. Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. Frequencies are defined as: very common (≥1/10), common (≥1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000) very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

System organ class (SOC)

Very Common

Common

Uncommon

Not known

Infections and infestations

Infection susceptibility increased

Sepsis

Toxic shock syndrome

Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (incl. cysts and polyps)

Treatment related second malignancy

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Leukopenia

Thrombocytopenia

Febrile neutropenia

Anemia

Pancytopenia

Granulocytopenia

Immune system disorders

Acute graft versus host disease

Chronic graft versus host disease

Hypersensitivity

Endocrine disorders

Hipopituitarism

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Anorexia

Decreased appetite

Hyperglycaemia

Psychiatric disorders

Confusional state

Mental status changes

Anxiety

Delirium

Nervousness

Hallucination

Agitation

Nervous system disorders

Dizziness

Headache

Vision blurred

Encephalopathy

Convulsion

Paraesthesia

Intracranial aneurysm

Extrapyramidal disorder

Cognitive disorder

Cerebral haemorrhage

Leukoencephalopathy

Eye disorders

Conjuctivitis

Cataract

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Hearing impaired

Ototoxicity

Tinnitus

Cardiac disorders

Arrhythmia

Tachycardia

Cardiac failure

Cardiomyopathy

Myocarditis

Vascular disorders

Lymphoedema

Hypertension

Haemorrhage

Embolism

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome

Epistaxis

Pulmonary oedema

Cough

Pneumonitis

Hypoxia

Gastrointestinal disorders

Nausea

Stomatitis

Oesophagitis

Vomiting

Diarrhoea

Dyspepsia

Abdominal pain

Enteritis

Colitis

Constipation

Gastrointestinal perforation

Ileus

Gastrointestinal ulcer

Hepatobiliary disorders

Venooclusive liver disease

Hepatomegaly

Jaundice

Skin and subcutaneous disorders

Rash

Pruritus

Alopecia

Erythema

Pigmentation disorder

Erythrodermic psoriasis

Severe toxic skin reactions including cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Back pain

Myalgia

Arthralgia

Renal and urinary disorders

Cystitis haemorrhagic

Dysuria

Oliguria

Renal failure

Cystitis

Haematuria

Reproductive system and breast disorders

Azoospermia

Amenorrhoea

Vaginal haemorrhage

Menopausal symptoms

Infertility female

Infertility male

General disorders and administration site conditions

Pyrexia

Asthenia

Chills

Generalised oedema

Injection site inflammation

Injection site pain

Mucosal inflammation

Multi-organ failure

Pain

Investigation

Weight increased

Blood bilirubin increased

Transaminases increased

Blood amylase increased

Blood creatinine increased

Blood urea increased

Gamma-glutamyltransferase increased

Blood alkaline phosphatase increased

Aspartate aminotransferase increased

Paediatric population

The adverse reactions considered at least possibly related to conditioning treatment including thiotepa, reported in paediatric patients as more than an isolated case, are listed below by system organ class and by frequency. Within each frequency grouping, undesirable effects are presented in order of decreasing seriousness. Frequencies are defined as: very common (≥1/10), common ((≥1/100 to <1/10), uncommon (≥1/1,000 to <1/100), rare (≥1/10,000 to <1/1,000) very rare (<1/10,000), not known (cannot be estimated from the available data).

System organ class (SOC)

Very Common

Common

Not known

Infections and infestations

Infection susceptibility increased

Sepsis

Thrombocytopenic purpura

Neoplasms benign, malignant and unspecified (incl. cysts and polyps)

Treatment related second malignancy

Blood and lymphatic system disorders

Thrombocytopenia

Febrile neutropenia

Anaemia

Pancytopenia

Granulocytopenia

Immune system disorders

Acute graft versus host disease

Chronic graft versus host disease

Endocrine disorders

Hypopituitarism

Hypogonadism

Hypothyroidism

Metabolism and nutrition disorders

Anorexia

Hyperglycaemia

Psychiatric disorders

Mental status changes

Mental disorder due to a general medical condition

Nervous system disorders

Headache

Encephalopathy

Convulsion

Cerebral haemorrhage

Memory impairment

Paresis

Ataxia

Leukoencephalopathy

Ear and labyrinth disorders

Hearing impaired

Cardiac disorders

Cardiac arrest

Cardiovascular insufficiency

Cardiac failure

Vascular disorders

Haemorrhage

Hypertension

Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders

Pneumonitis

Idiopathic pneumonia syndrome

Pulmonary haemorrhage

Pulmonary oedema

Epistaxis

Hypoxia

Respiratory arrest

Pulmonary arterial hypertension

Gastrointestinal disorders

Nausea

Stomatitis

Vomiting

Diarrhoea

Abdominal pain

Enteritis

Intestinal obstruction

Hepatobiliary disorders

Venoocclusive liver disease

Liver failure

Skin and subcutaneous disorders

Rash

Erythema

Desquamation

Pigment disorder

Severe toxic skin reactions including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis

Musculoskeletal and connective tissue disorders

Growth retardation

Renal and urinary disorders

Bladder disorders

Renal failure

Cystic haemorrhagic

General disorders and administration site conditions

Pyrexia

Mucosal inflammation

Pain

Multi-organ failure

Investigation

Blood bilirubin increased

Transaminases increased

Blood creatinine increased

Aspartate aminotransferase increased

Alanine aminotransferase increased

Blood urea increased

Blood electrolytes abnormal

Prothrombin time ratio increased

Reporting of suspected adverse reactions

Reporting suspected adverse reactions after authorisation of the medicinal product is important. It allows continued monitoring of the benefit/risk balance of the medicinal product. Healthcare professionals are asked to report any suspected adverse reactions via the Yellow Card Scheme website: www.mhra.gov.uk/yellowcard or search for MHRA Yellow Card in the Google Play or Apple App Store.

4.9 Overdose

There is no experience with overdoses of thiotepa. The most important adverse reactions expected in case of overdose is myeloablation and pancytopenia.

There is no known antidote for thiotepa.

The haematological status needs to be closely monitored and vigorous supportive measures instituted as medically indicated.

5. Pharmacological properties
5.1 Pharmacodynamic properties

Pharmacotherapeutic group: Antineoplastic agents, Alkylating Agents,

ATC code: L01AC01

Mechanism of action

Thiotepa is a polyfunctional cytotoxic agent related chemically and pharmacologically to the nitrogen mustard. The radiomimetic action of thiotepa is believed to occur through the release of ethylene imine radicals that, as in the case of irradiation therapy, disrupt the bonds of DNA, e.g. by alkylation of guanine at the N- 7, breaking the linkage between the purine base and the sugar and liberating alkylated guanine.

Clinical safety and efficacy

The conditioning treatment must provide cytoreduction and ideally disease eradication. Thiotepa has marrow ablation as its dose-limiting toxicity, allowing significant dose escalation with the infusion of autologous HPCT. In allogeneic HPCT, the conditioning treatment must be sufficiently immunosuppressive and myeloablative to overcome host rejection of the graft. Due to its highly myeloablative characteristics, thiotepa enhances recipient immunosuppression and myeloablation, thus strengthening engraftment; this compensates for the loss of the GvHD-related GvL effects. As alkylating agent, thiotepa produces the most profound inhibition of tumour cell growth in vitro with the smallest increase in medicinal product concentration. Due to its lack of extramedullary toxicity despite dose escalation beyond myelotoxic doses, thiotepa has been used for decades in combination with other chemotherapy medicinal products prior to autologous and allogeneic HPCT.

The results of published clinical studies supporting the efficacy of thiotepa are summarised:

Autologous HPCT:

Haematological diseases

Engraftment: Conditioning treatments including thiotepa have proved to be myeloablative.

Disease Free Survival (DFS): An estimated 43% at five years has been reported, confirming that conditioning treatments containing thiotepa following autologous HPCT are effective therapeutic strategies for treating patients with haematological diseases.

Relapse: In all conditioning treatments containing thiotepa, relapse rates at more than 1 year have been reported as being 60% or lower, which was considered by the physicians as the threshold to prove efficacy. In some of the conditioning treatments evaluated, relapse rates lower than 60% have also been reported at 5 years.

Overall Survival (OS): OS ranged from 29% to 87% with a follow-up ranging from 22 up to 63 months.

Regimen Related Mortality (RRM) and Transplant Related Mortality (TRM): RRM values ranging from 2.5% to 29% have been reported. TRM values ranged from 0% to 21% at 1 year, confirming the safety of the conditioning treatment including thiotepa for autologous HPCT in adult patients with haematological diseases.

Solid tumours

Engraftment: Conditioning treatments including thiotepa have proved to be myeloablative.

Disease Free Survival (DFS): Percentages reported with follow-up periods of more than 1 year confirm that conditioning treatments containing thiotepa following autologous HPCT are effective choices for treating patients with solid tumours.

Relapse: In all conditioning treatments containing thiotepa, relapse rates at more than 1 year have been reported as being lower than 60%, which was considered by the physicians as the threshold to prove efficacy. In some cases, relapse rates of 35% and of 45% have been reported at 5 years and 6 years respectively.

Overall Survival: OS ranged from 30% to 87% with a follow-up ranging from 11.7 up to 87 months.

Regimen Related Mortality (RRM) and Transplant Related Mortality (TRM): RRM values ranging from 0% to 2% have been reported. TRM values ranged from 0% to 7.4% confirming the safety of the conditioning treatment including thiotepa for autologous HPCT in adult patients with solid tumours.

Allogeneic HPCT:

Haematological diseases

Engraftment: Engraftment has been achieved (92%-100%) in all reported conditioning treatments and it was considered to occur at the expected time. Therefore; it can be concluded that conditioning treatments including thiotepa are myeloablative.

GvHD (graft versus host disease): all conditioning treatments evaluated assured a low incidence of acute GvHD grade III-IV (from 4% to 24%).

Disease Free Survival (DFS): Percentages reported with follow-up periods of more than 1 year and up to 5 years confirm that conditioning treatments containing thiotepa following allogeneic HPCT are effective choices for treating patients with haematological diseases.

Relapse: In all conditioning treatments containing thiotepa, relapse rates at more than 1 year have been reported as being lower than 40% (which was considered by the physicians as the threshold to prove efficacy). In some cases, relapse rates lower than 40% have also been reported at 5 years and 10 years.

Overall Survival: OS ranged from 31% to 81% with a follow-up ranging from 7.3 up to 120 months.

Regimen Related Mortality (RRM) and Transplant Related Mortality (TRM): low values have been reported, confirming the safety of the conditioning treatments including thiotepa for allogeneic HPCT in adult patients with haematological diseases.

Paediatric population

Autologous HPCT:

Solid tumours

Engraftment: It has been achieved with all reported conditioning regimens including thiotepa.

Disease Free Survival (DFS): With a follow-up of 36 to 57 months, DFS ranged from 46% to 70% in the reported studies. Considering that all patients were treated for high risk solid tumours, DFS results confirm that conditioning treatments containing thiotepa following autologous HPCT are effective therapeutic strategies for treating paediatric patients with solid tumours.

Relapse: In all the reported conditioning regimens containing thiotepa, relapse rates at 12 to 57 months ranged from 33% to 57%. Considering that all patients suffer of recurrence or poor prognosis solid tumours, these rates support the efficacy of conditioning regimens based on thiotepa.

Overall Survival (OS): OS ranged from 17% to 84% with a follow-up ranging from 12.3 up to 99.6 months.

Regimen Related Mortality (RRM) and Transplant Related Mortality (TRM): RRM values ranging from 0% to 26.7% have been reported. TRM values ranged from 0% to 18% confirming the safety of the conditioning treatments including thiotepa for autologous HPCT in paediatric patients with solid tumours.

Allogeneic HPCT:

Haematological diseases

Engraftment: It has been achieved with all evaluated conditioning regimens including thiotepa with a success rate of 96% - 100%. The haematological recovery is in the expected time.

Disease Free Survival (DFS): Percentages of 40% - 75% with follow-up of more than 1 year have been reported. DFS results confirm that conditioning treatment containing thiotepa following allogeneic HPCT are effective therapeutic strategies for treating paediatric patients with haematological diseases.

Relapse: In all the reported conditioning regimens containing thiotepa, the relapse rate was in the range of 15% - 44%. These data support the efficacy of conditioning regimens based on thiotepa in all haematological diseases.

Overall Survival (OS): OS ranged from 50% to 100% with a follow-up ranging from 9.4 up to 121 months.

Regimen Related Mortality (RRM) and Transplant Related Mortality (TRM): RRM values ranging from 0% to 2.5% have been reported. TRM values ranged from 0% to 30% confirming the safety of the conditioning treatment including thiotepa for allogeneic HPCT in paediatric patients with haematological diseases.

5.2 Pharmacokinetic properties

Absorption

Thiotepa is unreliably absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract: acid instability prevents thiotepa from being administered orally.

Distribution

Thiotepa is a highly lipophilic compound. After intravenous administration, plasma concentrations of the active substance fit a two compartment model with a rapid distribution phase. The volume of distribution of thiotepa is large and it has been reported as ranging from 40.8 l/m2 to 75 l/m2, indicating distribution to total body water. The apparent volume of distribution of thiotepa appears independent of the administered dose. The fraction unbound to proteins in plasma is 70-90%; insignificant binding of thiotepa to gamma globulin and minimal albumin binding (10-30%) has been reported.

After intravenous administration, CSF medicinal product exposure is nearly equivalent to that achieved in plasma; the mean ratio of AUC in CSF to plasma for thiotepa is 0.93. CSF and plasma concentrations of TEPA, the first reported active metabolite of thiotepa, exceed the concentrations of the parent compound.

Biotransformation

Thiotepa undergoes rapid and extensive hepatic metabolism and metabolites could be detected in urine within 1 hour after infusion. The metabolites are active alkylating agents but the role they play in the antitumor activity of thiotepa remains to be elucidated. Thiotepa undergoes oxidative desulphuration via the cytochrome P450 CYP2B and CYP3A isoenzyme families to the major and active metabolite TEPA (triethylenephosphoramide). The total excreted amount of thiotepa and its identified metabolites accounts for 54-100% of the total alkylating activity, indicating the presence of other alkylating metabolites. During conversion of GSH conjugates to N-acetylcysteine conjugates, GSH, cysteinylglycine, and cysteine conjugates are formed. These metabolites are not found in urine, and, if formed, are probably excreted in bile or as intermediate metabolites rapidly converted into thiotepa-mercapturate.

Elimination

The total clearance of thiotepa ranged from 11.4 to 23.2 l/h/m2. The elimination half-life varied from 1.5 to 4.1 hours. The identified metabolites TEPA, monochlorotepa and thiotepa-mercapturate are all excreted in the urine. Urinary excretion of thiotepa and TEPA is nearly complete after 6 and 8 hours respectively. The mean urinary recovery of thiotepa and its metabolites is 0.5% for the unchanged medicinal product and monochlorotepa, and 11% for TEPA and thiotepa-mercapturate.

Linearity/non-linearity

There is no clear evidence of saturation of metabolic clearance mechanisms at high doses of thiotepa.

Special populations

Paediatric population

The pharmacokinetics of high dose thiotepa in children between 2 and 12 years of age do not appear to vary from those reported in children receiving 75 mg/m2 or adults receiving similar doses.

Renal impairment

The effects of renal impairment on thiotepa elimination have not been assessed.

Hepatic impairment

The effects of hepatic impairment on thiotepa metabolism and elimination have not been assessed.

5.3 Preclinical safety data

No conventional acute and repeat dose toxicity studies were performed.

Thiotepa was shown to be genotoxic in vitro and in vivo, and carcinogenic in mice and rats.

Thiotepa was shown to impair fertility and interfere with spermatogenesis in male mice, and to impair ovarian function in female mice. It was teratogenic in mice and in rats, and foeto-lethal in rabbits. These effects were seen at doses lower than those used in humans.

6. Pharmaceutical particulars
6.1 List of excipients

None.

6.2 Incompatibilities

Thiotepa is unstable in acid medium.

This medicinal product must not be mixed with other medicinal products except those mentioned in section 6.6.

6.3 Shelf life

Unopened vial

24 months

After reconstitution

Chemical and physical in-use stability after reconstitution has been demonstrated for 8 hours when stored at 2°C-8°C.

After dilution

Chemical and physical in-use stability after dilution has been demonstrated for 24 hours when stored at 2°C-8°C and for 4 hours when stored at room temperature (20°C - 25°C.

From a microbiological point of view, the product should be used immediately after dilution. If not used immediately, in-use storage times and conditions prior to use are the responsibility of the user and would normally not be longer than the above-mentioned conditions when dilution has taken place in controlled and validated aseptic conditions.

6.4 Special precautions for storage

Unopened vial

Store and transport refrigerated (2°C – 8°C).

Do not freeze.

After reconstitution and dilution

For storage conditions of the reconstituted and diluted medicinal product, see section 6.3.

6.5 Nature and contents of container

Type-I clear glass vial with a rubber stopper and aluminium seal, containing 100 mg thiotepa.

Pack size of 1 vial.

6.6 Special precautions for disposal and other handling

Preparation of Thiotepa

Procedures for proper handling and disposal of anticancer medicinal products must be considered. All transfer procedures require strict adherence to aseptic techniques, preferably employing a vertical laminar flow safety hood.

As with other cytotoxic compounds, caution needs to be exercised in handling and preparation of Thiotepa solutions to avoid accidental contact with skin or mucous membranes. Topical reactions associated with accidental exposure to thiotepa may occur. In fact, the use of gloves is recommended in preparing the solution for infusion. If thiotepa solution accidentally contacts the skin, the skin must be immediately and thoroughly washed with soap and water. If thiotepa accidentally contacts mucous membranes, they must be flushed thoroughly with water.

Reconstitution

Thiotepa must be reconstituted with 10 ml of sterile water for injection.

Using a syringe fitted with a needle, aseptically withdraw 10 ml of sterile water for injection.

Inject the content of the syringe into the vial through the rubber stopper.

Remove the syringe and the needle and mix manually by repeated inversions.

Only colourless solutions, without any particulate matter, must be used. Reconstituted solutions may occasionally show opalescence; such solutions can still be administered.

Further dilution in the infusion bag

The reconstituted solution is hypotonic and must be further diluted prior to administration with 500 ml sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) solution for injection (1000 ml if the dose is higher than 500 mg) or with an appropriate volume of sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) in order to obtain a final Thiotepa concentration between 0.5 and 1 mg/ml.

Administration

Thiotepa infusion solution should be inspected visually for particulate matter prior to administration. Solutions containing a precipitate should be discarded.

Prior to and following each infusion, the indwelling catheter line should be flushed with approximately 5 ml sodium chloride 9 mg/ml (0.9%) solution for injection.

The infusion solution must be administered to patients using an infusion set equipped with a 0.2 μm in-line filter. Filtering does not alter solution potency.

Disposal

Thiotepa is for single use only.

Any unused product or waste material should be disposed of in accordance with local requirements.

7. Marketing authorisation holder

Mercury Pharmaceuticals Limited

Capital House

85 King William Street

London

EC4N 7BL

United Kingdom

8. Marketing authorisation number(s)

PL 12762/0634

9. Date of first authorisation/renewal of the authorisation

10/06/2021

10. Date of revision of the text

10/06/2021